Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of 5 for three years. At the age of 8,...

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space". As he grew, Einstein...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then,...

In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the...

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six...

With the discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić it became known that they had a...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zurich in July 1910. In 1914,...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. In...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the help of Marcel Grossmann's...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their readings included the works of Henri...

In 1900, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, after giving a lecture on electrodynamics and the...

Einstein became a full professor at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911, but returned to his alma mater in Zurich in 1912. From 1912 until 1914 he was professor of theoretical physics at the ETH in Zurich, where...

In 1914, he returned to the German Empire after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932) and a professor at the Humboldt University...

Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the...

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was considered still somewhat controversial. He also...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official...

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to...

In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore, Ceylon and Japan,...

On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. Einstein was greeted as if he were a head of state, rather than a physicist, which included a...

In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at the...

After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors of the New York Times, and a performance of Carmen at the...

Einstein next traveled to California where he met Caltech president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His...

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both noted for their pacifism. Carl Laemmle, head of...

Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein conceived his theory of relativity. During breakfast...

Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premier a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests, described by Isaacson as "one of the most memorable scenes in...

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not to return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor,...

While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in...

In April 1933, he also discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities. Historian Gerald Holton...

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is...

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany. He rented a house in Belgium...

Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd...

Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü,...

Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe. The bill failed to become law,...

In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), noted for having...

He was still undecided on his future (he had offers from European universities, including Oxford), but in 1935 he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the...

Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt...

Other scientists also fled to America, including Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics....

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of the...

Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of...

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university to grant college degrees to blacks, including Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall....

Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its first...

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the...

After the death of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, in November 1952, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of...

If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German...

When he turned 13 he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart, whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more willingly. He taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically",...

Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few...

In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered and...

He called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label atheist. He said he believed in the "pantheistic" God of Baruch Spinoza, but not in a personal god, a belief he...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died in Princeton Hospital early the next...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There was always with him a...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer....

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations. Einstein's 1905...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that the lowest energy state of an oscillator is equal to 1⁄2hf, to half the...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by...

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended that his equations predicted the universe to be either contracting or expanding. He wanted the universe to...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist Mario Livio showed that...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research paper was titled ''"Zum kosmologischen Problem"''...

This is consistent with the now-obsolete Steady State model of cosmology, proposed later in 1949, and with today's...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice." Einstein continued to maintain his disbelief...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath...

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field...

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves,...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this,...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted,...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Margot Einstein...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model for...


- Check Complete Bio in Wikipedia -

Related videos to Albert Einstein



Related links to Albert Einstein


  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

  • Albert Einstein Archives
    The homepage of the repository of the personal papers of the great scientist, humanist and Jew, Albert Einstein

  • Einstein-Image and Impact. AIP History…
    An online exhibit of the life of Albert Einstein, by the AIP Center for History of Physics. Text by leading historians and many illustrations and quotes show Einstein's ...

  • Biography Videos - Watch Online -…
    Watch exclusive video biographies of some of the world's most famous people, on Biography.com. Also view full episodes, previews, and clips of your favorite BIO Channel TV shows.

  • Albert Einstein Home Page
    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

  • Albert Einstein: Biography from Answers.com
    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

  • Einstein summary
    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ... Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision of physical reality.

  • Albert Einstein Biography - The Life and…
    Albert Einstein - the biography of Albert Einstein. ... By Mary Bellis. Photo: Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879.

  • Albert Einstein Online - Quotes, Speeches,…
    Albert Einstein Biography. Albert Einstein, 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting ...

  • Albert Einstein Biography - Facts,…
    Biography.com offers a glimpse into the life of Albert Einstein, the most influential physicist of the 20th century, who developed the theory of relativity.