Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn/; German:  ( listen); 14 March 1879 â€“ 18 April 1955) was a German-born...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. On 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einstein's...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of 5 for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, a few months later, to...

In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the...

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year. She was the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the...

The discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić revealed...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern,...

The marriage with Marić does not seem to have been very happy. In letters revealed in 2015,...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was a first cousin maternally and a second cousin paternally. In 1933, they...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named...

In 1900, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik. On 30 April 1905,...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of...

Einstein became a full professor at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian empire to do so. During...

In 1914, he returned to the German Empire after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for...

Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. In 1919 that prediction was...

In 1920, he became Foreign Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan, followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia...

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some...

In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore, Ceylon and Japan, where he gave a series of...

On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. Einstein was...

In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as...

After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors of the New York Times, and a performance of Carmen at the Metropolitan Opera, where he was...

Einstein next traveled to California where he met Caltech president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His friendship with Millikan was "awkward", as Millikan "had a penchant for patriotic militarism," where...

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both...

Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein conceived his theory of relativity. During breakfast one morning, he seemed lost in...

Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premier a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests. Walter Isaacson, Einstein's...

While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife...

In April 1933, he also discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at...

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister...

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of...

Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd George....

Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü, who he wrote in September 1933...

Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe. The bill...

In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), noted for...

Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from several European universities, including Oxford where he stayed for three short periods between May 1931 and June 1933,...

Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel) at the new...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research. The group's warnings were discounted. Einstein and...

To make certain the U.S. was aware of the danger, in July 1939, a few months before the beginning of World War II in Europe, Szilárd and Wigner...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II". In addition to the letter,...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... he called for resistance to war." By signing the letter to...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced...

Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans. He...

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant college...

Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its...

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a...

Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Upon his death while in office in November 1952 and at the urging of Ezriel Carlebach, Prime Minister...

If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a...

When he turned 13 he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart, whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with...

Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional himself was not on his...

In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters...

Einstein's views about religious belief have been collected from interviews and original writings. He called himself an...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in 1948....

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory),...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a...

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations. Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years, but...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr....

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative...

In a series of works completed from 1911 to 1913, Planck reformulated his 1900 quantum theory and...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was...

In 1911, Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the 1907 article, in...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions....

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended that his equations predicted the universe to...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist Mario Livio showed that Einstein possibly never said that. Instead of...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research paper was titled ''"Zum kosmologischen...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice." Einstein...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose,...

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory...

This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for...

Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force, superconductivity, gravitational waves, and other...

In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld, Nathan Rosen, Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by performing different...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town"...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model...


- Check Complete Bio in Wikipedia -

Related videos to Albert Einstein

No matching videos

Related links to Albert Einstein


  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

  • Albert Einstein Archives
    The homepage of the repository of the personal papers of the great scientist, humanist and Jew, Albert Einstein

  • Einstein-Image and Impact. AIP History…
    An online exhibit of the life of Albert Einstein, by the AIP Center for History of Physics. Text by leading historians and many illustrations and quotes show Einstein's ...

  • Biography Videos - Watch Online -…
    Watch exclusive video biographies of some of the world's most famous people, on Biography.com. Also view full episodes, previews, and clips of your favorite BIO Channel TV shows.

  • Albert Einstein Home Page
    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

  • Albert Einstein: Biography from Answers.com
    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

  • Einstein summary
    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ... Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision of physical reality.

  • Albert Einstein Biography - The Life and…
    Albert Einstein - the biography of Albert Einstein. ... By Mary Bellis. Photo: Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879.

  • Albert Einstein Online - Quotes, Speeches,…
    Albert Einstein Biography. Albert Einstein, 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting ...

  • Albert Einstein Biography - Facts,…
    Biography.com offers a glimpse into the life of Albert Einstein, the most influential physicist of the 20th century, who developed the theory of relativity.