Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German:  ( listen); 14 March...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming an American citizen...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. At the age of eight,...

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space". As he grew,...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to...

In 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the...

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six students in the...

With the discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić it became known that they had...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. In 1933, they emigrated...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their...

In 1901, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik. On 30 April...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist, and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, he quit the patent office and the lectureship to take the position of physics docent at the...

During 1911, he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another...

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was considered still...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor...

In 1922, he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. His...

On his return voyage, he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. "He was greeted...

I consider this the greatest day of my life. Before, I have always found something to regret in the Jewish soul, and that is the forgetfulness...

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein decided not to return to Germany due to the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler. He visited...

In early April 1933, he learned that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities. A month later, Einstein's works were among those...

He resided in Belgium for some months, before temporarily living in England. In a letter to his friend, physicist Max Born, who also emigrated from Germany and lived in England, Einstein wrote, "... I...

In October 1933 he returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), that required his presence for six months each year. He was still undecided on...

His affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt...

Other scientists also fled to America. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish scientists...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry into World...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... he called for resistance to war." By signing the letter to...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of...

What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. No one humbles himself before another person or...

Einstein worked in 1943 and 1944 as a $25-per-day consultant to the Research and Development Division of the U.S....

As a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton who campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans, Einstein corresponded with civil rights activist W. E. B. Du Bois, and in 1946...

During the final stage of his life, Einstein transitioned to a vegetarian lifestyle, arguing that "the vegetarian manner of living by its purely physical effect on the human temperament would most beneficially...

After the death of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, in November 1952, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel, a mostly ceremonial post. The...

All my life I have dealt with objective matters, hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There was...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer....

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He modified Planck's...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch...

In 1917, Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended that his equations predicted the universe to be either contracting or expanding. He wanted the...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist Mario Livio showed that Einstein...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research paper was titled ''"Zum kosmologischen Problem"'' ("About the...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists,...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of...

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a...

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is...

Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force, superconductivity, gravitational waves, and...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas....

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by performing...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer to a position or...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed Bell's theorem, which had...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered to and...

He called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label atheist. He said he believed in the...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a...

When he turned thirteen he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart. "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music, notes Botstein,...

Botstein notes that music assumed a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew...

Corbis, successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model for...


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  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

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    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

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    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

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