Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German:  ( listen); 14 March...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. On 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einstein's papers, comprising more than...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. His father was Hermann...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from...

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space". As he grew, Einstein...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first...

In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the Eidgenössische Technische...

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year. She was the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. Over the next few...

The discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić revealed that they had had a daughter, called "Lieserl" in their letters, born in early 1902 in Novi...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zurich in July 1910. In...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was a first cousin maternally and a second cousin paternally. In 1933, they emigrated to the United...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia...

In 1900, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year,...

Einstein became a full professor at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911, but returned to his...

In 1914, he returned to the German Empire after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932) and a professor...

Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. In 1919 that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington...

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by...

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics of Americans, much as Alexis de...

In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore, Ceylon and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to...

On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. Einstein was greeted...

In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research...

After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors of the New York Times, and a performance of Carmen at...

Einstein next traveled to California where he met Caltech president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His friendship with Millikan was "awkward", as...

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both noted for their pacifism. Carl Laemmle, head of Universal Studios, gave Einstein a tour of his studio and...

Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein conceived his theory of relativity. During breakfast one morning, he seemed lost in...

Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premier a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests. Walter Isaacson, Einstein's biographer, described this as...

While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife Elsa returned...

In April 1933, he also discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official...

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead." One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of...

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany. He rented a house in...

Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd George.:419–420 Einstein asked them to help bring Jewish...

Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü, who he wrote in September 1933 requesting...

Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which...

In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing...

He was still undecided on his future (he had offers from European universities, including Oxford), but in 1935 he arrived at the...

Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel) at the...

Other scientists also fled to America, including Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research. The group's warnings were...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II". In addition...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... In 1954, a year before his...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American culture when...

Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans. He...

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university to grant college degrees to blacks, including Langston Hughes and...

Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its first Board of...

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an...

Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Upon his death while in office in November 1952 and at the urging of Ezriel Carlebach, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of...

If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music... I get most...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and...

When he turned 13 he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart, whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more willingly. He taught himself to play...

Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with...

In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles,...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as...

Einstein's views about religious belief have been collected from interviews and original writings. He...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm,...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles Maxwell's...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion)...

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations. Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years, but...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by...

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist Mario Livio showed that Einstein possibly never said...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research paper was titled ''"Zum...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice." Einstein continued to maintain his disbelief in...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles....

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do...

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields,...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their debates are...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed Bell's theorem, which had...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University....

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite...


- Check Complete Bio in Wikipedia -

Related videos to Albert Einstein



Related links to Albert Einstein


  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

  • Albert Einstein Archives
    The homepage of the repository of the personal papers of the great scientist, humanist and Jew, Albert Einstein

  • Einstein-Image and Impact. AIP History…
    An online exhibit of the life of Albert Einstein, by the AIP Center for History of Physics. Text by leading historians and many illustrations and quotes show Einstein's ...

  • Biography Videos - Watch Online -…
    Watch exclusive video biographies of some of the world's most famous people, on Biography.com. Also view full episodes, previews, and clips of your favorite BIO Channel TV shows.

  • Albert Einstein Home Page
    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

  • Albert Einstein: Biography from Answers.com
    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

  • Einstein summary
    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ... Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision of physical reality.

  • Albert Einstein Biography - The Life and…
    Albert Einstein - the biography of Albert Einstein. ... By Mary Bellis. Photo: Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879.

  • Albert Einstein Online - Quotes, Speeches,…
    Albert Einstein Biography. Albert Einstein, 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting ...

  • Albert Einstein Biography - Facts,…
    Biography.com offers a glimpse into the life of Albert Einstein, the most influential physicist of the 20th century, who developed the theory of relativity.