Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn/; German:  ( listen); 14 March 1879 â€“ 18 April 1955)...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming an American...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. On...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of 5 for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to...

In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH)....

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year. She was the...

The discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić revealed that they had had a daughter,...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zurich in July 1910. In 1914, the...

The marriage with Marić does not seem to have been very happy. In letters revealed in 2015, Einstein wrote to his early love, Marie Winteler, about his marriage and his still strong feelings for Marie. In 1910 he...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was a first cousin...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the help of Marcel...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their...

In 1900, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, after giving a lecture on electrodynamics and the relativity principle at the University of Zurich, Alfred...

Einstein became a full professor at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the...

In 1914, he returned to the German Empire after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics...

Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be...

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was considered still somewhat controversial. He also...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan, followed by...

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics of Americans, much as Alexis de Tocqueville did, who published his own impressions in...

In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore, Ceylon and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands...

On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. Einstein was greeted as if he were a head of state, rather than a...

In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow...

After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch...

Einstein next traveled to California where he met Caltech president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His friendship...

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both...

Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein conceived his theory of relativity. During breakfast one morning, he seemed lost in thought and ignored his food. She asked him if something was bothering...

Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premier a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to...

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise...

While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife Elsa...

In April 1933, he also discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities. Historian Gerald Holton...

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is...

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless...

Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd...

Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, Ä°smet...

Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number...

In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), noted for having become a refuge...

He was still undecided on his future (he had offers from European universities, including Oxford) where he stayed for three short periods between May 1931 and June 1933, but in 1935 he arrived at the decision to...

Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the...

Other scientists also fled to America, including Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America, often working side...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research. The group's...

To make certain the U.S. was aware of the danger, in July 1939, a few months before the beginning of World War II in Europe,...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... he called for resistance to war." By signing the letter to Roosevelt he went against...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in...

Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African...

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university in the United States...

Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its first Board of...

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be...

Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Upon his death while in office in November 1952 and at the urging of Ezriel Carlebach, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of...

If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German...

When he turned 13 he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart, whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more...

Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional himself was not on his mind at any...

In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered and...

Einstein's views about religious belief have been collected from interviews and original writings. He called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in 1948. He took the draft of a...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by himself he also...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory),...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a...

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it...

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended that his...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose,...

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which...

This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted,...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed Bell's...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model for depictions of mad...


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  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

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    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

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    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

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