Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German:  ( listen); 14 March 1879 â€“ 18 April...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch)....

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. At the age...

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of...

In 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH)....

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching...

With the discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić it became known that they had a daughter they called "Lieserl" in their letters, born in early 1902 in Novi Sad...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which...

In 1901, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik. On 30 April 1905, Einstein completed his...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist, and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, he quit the patent...

During 1911, he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity....

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was considered still somewhat controversial. He...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan,...

In 1922, he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. His travels included Singapore, Ceylon, and...

On his return voyage, he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. "He was greeted with great British pomp, as if he were a head of state rather than...

I consider this the greatest day of my life. Before, I have always found something to regret in the Jewish soul, and that is the forgetfulness of its own people. Today, I have been made happy by the sight of the Jewish...

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein decided not to return to Germany due to the rise to power of the Nazis...

In early April 1933, he learned that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching...

He resided in Belgium for some months, before temporarily living in England. In a letter to his friend, physicist Max Born, who also emigrated from Germany and lived...

In October 1933 he returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), that required his presence for six months each year. He was still undecided on his future (he had...

His affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel)...

Other scientists also fled to America. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in...

What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. No one humbles himself before another person or class ......

Einstein worked in 1943 and 1944 as a $25-per-day consultant to the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Navy's Division of Ordnance. He wrote to Stephen Brunauer, the research chemist who recruited him,...

As a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton who campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans, Einstein...

During the final stage of his life, Einstein transitioned to a vegetarian lifestyle, arguing that "the vegetarian manner of living by its purely physical effect on the human temperament would most...

After the death of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, in November 1952, Prime Minister David...

All my life I have dealt with objective matters, hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died in Princeton Hospital early the next...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There was always with...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein published in...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of...

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations. Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years, but was accepted by leading...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are...

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern. In "über die Entwicklung unserer...

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions....

In 1917, Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole....

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which was since then overlooked by other scientists. The research paper was titled ''"Zum kosmologischen Problem"''...

This is consistent with the now-obsolete Steady State model of cosmology, proposed later in 1949, and...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice." Einstein continued to maintain his disbelief in the...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles....

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a...

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In...

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator was then...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered to and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters often...

He called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label atheist. He said he believed in the "pantheistic"...

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a love of...

When he turned thirteen he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart. "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music, notes Botstein, and learned to play music more willingly. According to Einstein, he...

Botstein notes that music assumed a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model for depictions of mad...


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    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

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