Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt...

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the...

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming...

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His...

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. His father was Hermann...

The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. At the age of...

His father once showed him a pocket compass; Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move, despite the apparent "empty space". As he grew, Einstein built models and mechanical...

In 1894, his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC). In search of business, the Einstein family moved...

In 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich (later...

Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year, the only woman among the six students...

With the discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić it became known that they had a daughter they called "Lieserl" in their letters, born in early 1902 in Novi Sad...

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, the couple's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zurich in July 1910. In 1914, Einstein...

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal on 2 June 1919, after having had a relationship with her since 1912. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin...

After graduating, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in...

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical...

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their readings included the works of Henri...

In 1901, his paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the...

By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist, and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, he quit the patent office and...

During 1911, he had calculated that, based on his new theory of general relativity, light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. That prediction was claimed confirmed...

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, as relativity was...

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan, followed by three weeks of...

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics of Americans, much as Alexis de...

In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. He visited Singapore, Ceylon and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of...

On his return voyage, he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. "He was greeted with great British pomp, as if he were a head of state...

I consider this the greatest day of my life. Before, I have always found something to regret in the Jewish soul,...

In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology....

After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors...

Einstein next traveled to California where he met Caltech president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His friendship with Millikan was "awkward",...

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both...

Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein conceived his theory of relativity. During breakfast one morning, he seemed lost in thought and ignored his food....

Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premier a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guest. Considered by Isaacson as "one of the most memorable scenes in the new...

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not to return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler. In a letter that month, he wrote,...

While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife Elsa...

In April 1933, he also discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at...

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels...

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany. He rented a house in Belgium where he lived for a few...

Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd George.:419–420 Einstein asked them to help bring Jewish...

However, the moment he sat down he was greeted by a thunderous outburst of applause from us all. Never in my...

Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü, who he wrote in...

Locker-Lampson submitted a bill to parliament that would have the effect of extending British citizenship to Einstein, with Einstein then making a number of public appearances to explain the crisis brewing in Europe. At one such event...

In October 1933 he returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey). The...

He was still undecided on his future (he had offers from European universities, including Oxford), but in 1935 he arrived...

His affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel) at the new...

Other scientists also fled to America. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America, often working side...

In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of...

The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into...

For Einstein, "war was a disease ... In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein...

Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of the...

What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. No one humbles himself before another person or class ... American youth...

Einstein worked in 1943 and 1944 as a $25-per-day consultant to the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Navy's Division of Ordnance....

Einstein actively supported racial tolerance and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans. He considered racism...

Einstein witnessed prejudice first hand after seeing famed black opera singer, Marian Anderson, perform at Princeton's concert hall in 1937. When he learned that an inn at Princeton turned her away because of her race, he invited her...

Princeton at that time was segregated, writes historian Rodger Taylor, noting that no high schools there admitted blacks. Black singer-activist Paul Robeson, who was born in Princeton, developed a friendship with...

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he was awarded an honorary degree. Lincoln was the first university to grant college degrees to blacks, including Langston Hughes and...

Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its first Board of Governors. Earlier, in 1921, he was...

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing...

All my life I have considered it a sacred duty to contribute, to the best of my ability, to make the Hebrew University in Palestine a...

After the death of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann, in November 1952, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel, a mostly ceremonial post. The offer was...

All my life I have dealt with objective matters, hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to...

If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music......

Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin,...

When he turned thirteen he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart. "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music, notes...

Botstein notes that music assumed a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a...

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?". Einstein offered and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters often...

He called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label atheist. He said he believed in the "pantheistic" God of Baruch Spinoza, but not in a...

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. Rudolph Nissen in 1948. He took the...

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to...

During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the...

In his lecture at Einstein's memorial, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a...

Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. In addition to the work he did by himself he also...

The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein published in the...

Albert Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the...

He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of...

Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles...

Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper...

In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity...

In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally...

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant....

In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a...

Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was...

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the...

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern....

Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are...

Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that the lowest energy state of an oscillator is equal to 1⁄2hf, to...

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to...

As Albert Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a...

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument...

In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. Simultaneously less...

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. He apprehended that his equations predicted the universe to be either contracting or expanding. He wanted the universe to...

Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred, because it would obey Mach's principle. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's...

In many of Einstein biographies, writers claim that he called the creation of Lambda his "biggest blunder". Recently, astrophysicist Mario Livio...

In late 2013, Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh, happened to discover a handwritten manuscript by Einstein which...

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and mechanics (the very theory he helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists,...

In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of...

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem...

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to...

The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in 1917 by Erwin...

Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In 1950, he described...

Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge...

If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs...

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by...

The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how...

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a...

Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force,...

Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum....

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then...

This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to...

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for...

The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their debates are remembered...

In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by performing different...

He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The...

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed...

While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters...

In the period before World War II, the New York Times published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people...

Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. He is a...


- Check Complete Bio in Wikipedia -

Related videos to Albert Einstein



Related links to Albert Einstein


  • Albert Einstein - Wikipedia, the free…
    Albert Einstein ( / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n /; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist ...

  • Albert Einstein Archives
    The homepage of the repository of the personal papers of the great scientist, humanist and Jew, Albert Einstein

  • Einstein-Image and Impact. AIP History…
    An online exhibit of the life of Albert Einstein, by the AIP Center for History of Physics. Text by leading historians and many illustrations and quotes show Einstein's ...

  • Biography Videos - Watch Online -…
    Watch exclusive video biographies of some of the world's most famous people, on Biography.com. Also view full episodes, previews, and clips of your favorite BIO Channel TV shows.

  • Albert Einstein Home Page
    A note about this site: I put information on this site that I thought would be useful to other students, but hopefully others will be able to get something out of it.

  • Albert Einstein: Biography from Answers.com
    Albert Einstein (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Ger. — died April 18, 1955, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) German-born Swiss-U.S

  • Einstein summary
    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) ... Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision of physical reality.

  • Albert Einstein Biography - The Life and…
    Albert Einstein - the biography of Albert Einstein. ... By Mary Bellis. Photo: Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879.

  • Albert Einstein Online - Quotes, Speeches,…
    Albert Einstein Biography. Albert Einstein, 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting ...

  • Albert Einstein Biography - Facts,…
    Biography.com offers a glimpse into the life of Albert Einstein, the most influential physicist of the 20th century, who developed the theory of relativity.