George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States...

Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks occurred. In...

In addition to national security issues, Bush also promoted policies on the economy, health care, education, social security reform, and amending the Constitution to disallow same-sex marriage. He signed...

Bush successfully ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004, in another relatively close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the...

Bush left office in 2009, and was succeeded as president by Barack Obama, who ran on a platform of change from Bush's policies. Since leaving office, Bush has returned to Texas and purchased...

George Walker Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut, at Grace-New Haven Hospital (now Yale â€“ New Haven Hospital), on July 6, 1946, the first child of George Herbert...

Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas, until the family moved to Houston, after he had completed...

Bush finished high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school (then all-male) in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and, during his senior year,...

In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard. he was assigned to Houston, flying Convair F-102s...

In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the 187th Fighter Wing of the Alabama Air National Guard,...

At a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Lane Welch, a school teacher and librarian. Bush...

Prior to his marriage, Bush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance, on September 4, 1976, he was arrested...

Bush has been an avid reader throughout his adult life, preferring biographies and histories. During his time as president, Bush read 14 Lincoln biographies and, during the last three years of his...

Bush welcomed his first granddaughter, Margaret Laura "Mila" Hager on April 14, 2013, when his daughter...

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as out of touch with rural Texans. Bush lost the...

Bush moved his family to Washington, D.C. in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency. He served as a campaign adviser and liaison to the...

In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign as "campaign advisor". The prior month, his father asked him to tell White House chief of staff...

As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and...

After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards. In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to...

Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut, $2 billion. He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and...

In 1999, Bush signed a state law obliging electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable sources (RPS), which helped Texas eventually...

In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record For most of Texas history, governors served...

Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate. Following his re-election, speculation...

In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States. With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of candidates for the Republican...

Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he was more centrist than other Republicans. He campaigned on a platform that included bringing integrity and honor back to the...

Bush won the Iowa caucuses, but, although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed McCain by 19% and lost that primary. Despite this,...

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, U.S....

When the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount. The initial recount also went to Bush, but the...

In 2004, Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. He appointed Ken...

The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry. Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the Iraq...

In the election, Bush carried 31 of 50 states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes. He won an outright majority of the popular vote (50.7% to his opponent's 48.3%)....

Though Bush originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001. Wars were waged in Afghanistan and Iraq with significant...

Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the Dot-com bubble. The terrorist attacks also impacted the economy. The Bush administration increased federal government...

The increase in spending was more than under any predecessor since Lyndon B. Johnson. The number of...

The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion—the third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever. In 2001, Bush's budget estimated that...

Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000. When Bush left office, the average was at 7,949,...

Unemployment originally rose from 4.2% in January 2001 to 6.3% in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5% as...

In December 2007, the United States entered the longest post–World War II recession, which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage...

Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Additional regulation over the...

In November 2008, over 500,000 jobs were lost, which marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years....

Bush undertook a number of educational priorities, such as increasing the funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office, and...

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich...

After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford Greenburg, resulted...

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare...

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security, which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005. Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite...

Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events, known as the...

Upon taking office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the UN Convention...

In May 2001, Bush signed an executive order to create an inter-agency task force to streamline energy projects, and later signed two other executive orders to tackle...

In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003, aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. Many experts argued that this legislation would have weakened the...

Bush has said that he believes that global warming is real and has noted that it is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's man-made or naturally...

In his 2006 State of the Union Address, Bush declared, "America is addicted to oil" and announced his Advanced Energy Initiative to increase energy...

That same year, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. The...

In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel...

In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit $2 billion over the...

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law...

President George W. Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). The bill protects Americans against discrimination...

In 2006, Bush urged Congress to allow more than 12 million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program". Bush did not support amnesty for illegal immigrants, but argued that...

Bush also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico–United States...

A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, most conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions. The...

On September 19, 2010, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that Bush offered to accept 100,000 Palestinian refugees as American citizens if a permanent settlement had been reached between...

Hurricane Katrina, one of the most damaging natural disasters in U.S. history, struck early in...

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27, he authorized the Department of Homeland...

On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance", triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan....

As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics charged that Bush was misrepresenting his administration's...

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys. Attorney...

Although Congressional investigations focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political...

In all, twelve Justice Department officials resigned rather than testify under oath before Congress. They included Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and his chief of staff Kyle...

In 2010, the Justice Department investigator concluded that though political considerations did play a...

During his Presidential campaign, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for stronger economic and political...

In his 2002 State of the Union Address, Bush referred to an axis of evil including Iraq, Iran and North Korea. After the...

Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public...

In March 2006, a visit to India led to renewed ties between the two countries, reversing decades of U.S. policy. The visit focused particularly on areas...

This is in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, Clinton, whose approach and response to India after the 1998 nuclear tests was that of...

Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central...

In an address before both Houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, Bush thanked the nations of the world for their support following...

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the...

In a September 20 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and his organization Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or ... share in...

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terror. The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime....

Dissent and criticism of Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq continued. In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate...

On October 7, 2001, U.S. and British forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul on November 13. The main goals of the...

Efforts to kill or capture al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the...

Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits. The 2005 failure of Operation Red Wings showed that the Taliban...

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and...

In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons...

In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei...

More than 20 nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing" joined the United States...

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in 50 years. According to Iraqi...

On January 10, 2007, Bush announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis,...

In March 2008, Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq". He said he would carefully...

Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the President's Surveillance Program which included allowing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the U.S...

Bush authorized the CIA to use waterboarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniques....

On October 17, 2006, Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006, a law enacted in the wake of the Supreme Court's...

On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082, a bill that would have expanded congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of...

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil", and saying...

On June 22, 2010, "While South Korea prospers, the people of North Korea have suffered profoundly," he said, adding that, "communism...

Bush expanded economic sanctions on Syria. In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and...

Bush initiated the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Program (PEPFAR). The U.S. government has spent some $44 billion on the project since 2003 (a figure that includes $7 billion contributed to the...

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian, a native Georgian who was born to a family of ethnic Armenians, threw a live hand grenade toward a...

Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues between Prime...

Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the People's Republic of China over the Hainan Island incident,...

In his State of the Union address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's...

On June 10, 2007, he met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania. Bush has voiced his...

Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of U.S. athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying: "On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful...

Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush...

On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated long time White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position. After facing significant opposition from both parties, who found her to be...

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts....

At the outset, Judicature magazine noted that the "Senate Democrats were gearing up for the approaching confirmation hearings" before the first set of nominees were sent to the Senate. It then cites the New York Times as saying...

The Senate only confirmed 8 out of 60 judicial nominations by October 2001. In February 2003, the Democrats successfully filibustered the nomination...

Bush's upbringing in West Texas, his accent, his vacations on his Texas ranch, and his penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image. "I think people look at him and think John Wayne," said...

Bush has been parodied by the media, Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public...

Bush began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%. maintaining 80–90%...

In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "has done the most to influence the events of the year". In May...

Within the United States armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president was strongly supported in the 2004...

Bush's approval rating went below the 50% mark in AP-Ipsos polling in December 2004. Thereafter, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues...

Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37% approval ratings for Bush, the lowest for any second-term president at that point of his term since...

By the beginning of 2008, his final year in office, Bush’s approval rating had dropped to a low of just 19%, largely from the loss of support among...

In the spring of that year, Bush's disapproval ratings reached the highest ever recorded for any president in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll, with 69% of those polled in April 2008 disapproving of the...

Early in his presidency, following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, he had achieved the highest job approval rating of any American president since World War II,...

Bush was criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns for his administration's foreign...

Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair of the UK and Vicente Fox of Mexico, although formal relations were sometimes strained....

In 2006, most respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as...

The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, in only nine countries...

During a June 2007 visit to the predominantly Muslim has troops in both Iraq and...

On May 7, 2005, during an official state visit to Latvia, Bush was awarded the Order of the Three Stars presented to him by President Vaira VÄ«Ä·e-Freiberga. A few places outside the United States...

Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family flew from Andrews Air Force Base to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas, following which they returned to their...

He makes regular appearances at various events throughout the Dallas/Fort Worth area, most notably when he...

Since leaving office, Bush has kept a relatively low profile though he has made public appearances, most notably after the release of his memoirs in 2010 and for the...

Bush released his memoirs, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010. During a pre-release appearance promoting the book, Bush said he considered his biggest accomplishment to be keeping...

In 2012, he wrote the foreword of The 4% Solution: Unleashing the Economic Growth America Needs, an economics book published by the George W. Bush Presidential Center. He also presented the book at the...

Bush appeared on NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on November 19, 2013, along with the former First Lady. When asked by Leno why he does not comment publicly about the Obama administration, Bush said, "I...

Alongside the 2014 United States–Africa Leaders Summit, Bush, Michelle Obama, the State Department, and the George W. Bush Institute hosted a daylong forum on...

On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed. The Bushes joined the...

George W. Bush's legacy remains a contested one, with both liberals and conservatives still holding strong feelings with regards to his overall place in history. Supporters credit Bush's counterterrorism policies with...

Despite the ongoing debate between liberals and conservatives, it is often acknowledged that Bush was one of the most consequential presidents in American history. According to Princeton University scholar Julian...

Since leaving office, Bush's presidency has received mostly negative reviews from professional scholars. A 2010 Siena College poll of 238 Presidential scholars found that Bush was ranked 39th out of 43, with poor ratings in handling...

Among the public, his reputation has improved somewhat since his presidency ended in 2009. In February 2012, Gallup reported that "Americans...


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