George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States...

Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks occurred. In response, Bush launched the War on Terror, an international military campaign which included...

Bush successfully ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004, in another relatively close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political spectrum for...

Bush left office in 2009, and was succeeded as president by Barack Obama, who ran on a platform of change from Bush's policies. Since leaving office, Bush has returned to...

George Walker Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut, at Grace-New Haven Hospital (now Yale â€“ New Haven Hospital), on July 6, 1946, the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Pierce. He was raised in...

Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas, until the family moved to Houston after he completed seventh grade. He then went to The...

Bush finished high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school (then all-male) in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and during his senior year was...

Beginning in the fall of 1973, Bush attended the Harvard Business School, where he earned a Master of Business Administration. He is the only U.S....

In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard. he was assigned to Houston, flying Convair F-102s with the 147th...

In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the 187th Fighter Wing of the Alabama Air National Guard, having moved to Montgomery, Alabama to work on the unsuccessful U.S. Senate...

At a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Lane Welch, a school teacher and librarian. Bush proposed to her after a three-month...

Prior to his marriage, Bush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance, on September 4, 1976, he was arrested near his family's summer...

Bush has been an avid reader throughout his adult life, preferring biographies and histories. During his time as president, Bush read 14 Lincoln biographies and, during the last...

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed...

Bush moved his family to Washington, D.C. in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency. he assisted...

In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign...

As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign...

After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards. In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain...

Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut, $2 billion. He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to...

In 1999, Bush also helped make Texas eventually the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S. by signing a state law obliging electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable...

In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record For most of Texas history, governors served two-year...

Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate. Following his re-election, speculation soared. Within a year, he decided to seek the 2000 Republican presidential...

In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States. With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of...

Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he was more centrist than other...

Bush won the Iowa caucuses, but, although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he...

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, U.S. Representative, and Secretary of Defense, to be his running mate. Cheney was...

Bush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as Governor of Texas. Bush's campaign criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over...

When the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a...

In 2004, Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. He appointed Ken Mehlman as campaign manager, with a political strategy devised by Karl Rove. Bush and the Republican...

The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John...

In the election, Bush carried 31 of 50 states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes. He won an outright majority of the popular vote...

Though Bush originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001....

Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the Dot-com bubble. The terrorist attacks also impacted the economy. The Bush administration increased...

The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion—the third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever. In 2001, Bush's budget estimated...

Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000. When Bush left...

Unemployment originally rose from 4.2% in January 2001 to 6.3% in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5% as of July 2007. Adjusted for inflation, median household income dropped by $1,175 between 2000...

In December 2007, the United States entered the longest post–World War II recession, which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, and a...

Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Additional regulation over the housing market would have been beneficial, according to...

In November 2008, over 500,000 jobs were lost, which marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years....

Bush undertook a number of educational priorities, such as increasing the funding for the National Science...

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance,...

After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford Greenburg, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years;" the bill's...

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by...

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security, which was facing record deficit...

Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events,...

Upon taking office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the UN Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing...

In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003, aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. Many experts argued that this legislation would have...

Bush has said that he believes that global warming is real and has noted that it is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's man-made or...

That same year, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises...

In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production. Amid high gasoline prices in 2008, Bush...

In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit $2 billion over the next three years to a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate...

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since...

President George W. Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). The bill protects Americans against discrimination based on their genetic information...

In 2006, Bush urged Congress to allow more than 12 million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker...

Bush also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National...

A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, most conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty...

On September 19, 2010, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that Bush offered to accept 100,000 Palestinian refugees as American citizens if a permanent settlement had been reached between...

Hurricane Katrina, one of the most damaging natural disasters in U.S. history, struck early in Bush’s second term. Katrina formed in late...

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27, and in Mississippi and Alabama the...

On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance", triggering the first use of the newly created National...

As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics charged that Bush was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they...

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys. The White House maintained that...

Although Congressional investigations focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political...

In all, twelve Justice Department officials resigned rather than testify under oath before Congress. They included Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and his chief of staff...

In 2010, the Justice Department investigator concluded that though political considerations did play a part in as many as four of the...

During his Presidential campaign, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially...

In his 2002 State of the Union Address, Bush referred to an axis of evil including Iraq, Iran and North Korea. After the September 11 attacks on New York,...

Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. He appointed long-time...

In March 2006, a visit to India led to renewed ties between the two countries, reversing decades of...

This is in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, Clinton, whose approach and response to India after the 1998...

Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some...

In an address before both Houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, Bush thanked the nations of the world for their support...

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. That evening, he addressed the nation from the...

In a September 20 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and his organization Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to...

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terror. The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with...

Dissent and criticism of Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq...

On October 7, 2001, U.S. and British forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul on November 13. The main goals of the war were to defeat...

Efforts to kill or capture al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a...

Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits. The 2005 failure of Operation Red Wings showed that the Taliban had...

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing...

In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical...

In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons...

More than 20 nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing" joined the United States in invading...

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in 50 years....

On January 10, 2007, Bush announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion for these programs. On May 1, 2007, Bush used...

In March 2008, Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq". He said he would carefully weigh...

Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the President's Surveillance Program which included allowing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists...

Bush authorized the CIA to use waterboarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniques. Between 2002...

On October 17, 2006, Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006, which allows the U.S. government to...

On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082, a bill that would have expanded congressional oversight over the intelligence...

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil", and saying that "the United States of America...

On June 22, 2010, "While South Korea prospers, the people of North Korea have suffered profoundly," he said, adding that, "communism had resulted in dire...

Bush expanded economic sanctions on Syria. In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher...

Bush initiated the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Program (PEPFAR). The U.S. government has spent some $44 billion on the project since 2003 (a figure that includes $7 billion contributed to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS,...

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian, a native Georgian who was born to a family of ethnic Armenians, threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in...

Bush withdrew U.S. support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) with Russia. He also signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty with...

Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for...

Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the...

In his State of the Union address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Bush announced $15 billion for this effort...

On June 10, 2007, he met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania. Bush has voiced his support for the...

Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of U.S. athletes rather than from...

Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John Roberts to succeed...

On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated long time White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position. After facing significant opposition from both parties, who found her to be...

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts. Each of...

At the outset, Judicature magazine noted that the "Senate Democrats were gearing up for the approaching confirmation hearings" before the first set of...

Bush's upbringing in West Texas, his accent, his vacations on his Texas ranch, and his penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image. "I think people...

Bush has been parodied by the media, Detractors tended to...

Bush began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%. maintaining 80–90%...

In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "has done the most to influence the...

Within the United States armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections. While 73% of military personnel said that they...

Bush's approval rating went below the 50% mark in AP-Ipsos polling in December 2004. Thereafter, his approval...

Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37% approval ratings for Bush, the lowest for any second-term president at that point of...

By the beginning of 2008, his final year in office, Bush’s approval rating had dropped to a low...

In the spring of that year, Bush's disapproval ratings reached the highest ever recorded for any president in the 70-year...

Early in his presidency, following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, he had achieved the highest job...

Bush was criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns for his administration's foreign policy. Views of him within the international community were more negative than those...

Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair of the UK and Vicente Fox of Mexico, although formal relations were sometimes strained. Other leaders, such as Afghan president Hamid...

In 2006, most respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. Respondents...

The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, in only nine countries did most...

During a June 2007 visit to the predominantly Muslim has troops in both...

On May 7, 2005, during an official state visit to Latvia, Bush was awarded the Order of the Three Stars presented to him by President Vaira...

Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family flew from Andrews Air Force Base to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas, following which they returned to their ranch in...

He makes regular appearances at various events throughout the Dallas/Fort Worth area, most notably when he conducted the opening coin toss at the Dallas Cowboys first game in the team's new stadium in Arlington and an April 2009...

On August 6, 2013, Bush was successfully treated for a coronary artery blockage with a stent. The blockage had been found during an annual medical...

Since leaving office, Bush has kept a relatively low profile though he has made public appearances, most...

Bush released his memoirs, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010. During a pre-release appearance promoting...

Bush appeared on NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on November 19, 2013, along with the former First Lady. When asked by Leno why he...

Alongside the 2014 United States–Africa Leaders Summit, Bush, Michelle Obama, the State Department, and the George W. Bush Institute hosted a daylong forum on...

At President Obama's request, Bush and Bill Clinton established the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund to raise contributions for relief and recovery efforts...

On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed. The Bushes joined the Obamas in New...

After serving as U.S. president, Bush has started painting as a hobby. Subjects include dogs and still...

George W. Bush's legacy remains a contested one, with both liberals and conservatives still holding strong feelings with regards to his overall place in history. Supporters credit Bush's counterterrorism policies with preventing...

Despite the ongoing debate between liberals and conservatives, it is often acknowledged that Bush was one of the most consequential presidents in American history. According to Princeton University scholar Julian Zelizer, Bush's presidency...

Since leaving office, Bush's presidency has received mostly negative reviews from professional scholars. A 2010 Siena College poll of 238 Presidential scholars found that Bush was ranked 39th out of 43,...

Among the public, his reputation has improved somewhat since his presidency ended in 2009. In February 2012, Gallup reported that "Americans still rate George W. Bush among the worst...


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