Adolf Hitler (German:  ( listen); 20 April 1889 â€“ 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German...

Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party (precursor of the NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he...

Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest democratically elected party in the German Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Following...

Hitler actively sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people. His aggressive foreign policy is...

Hitler's father, Alois Hitler, Sr. (1837–1903), was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. Because the baptismal...

Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper for a Jewish family in Graz and that the family's 19-year-old son, Leopold...

Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn located at Salzburger Vorstadt 15, Braunau am...

The move to Hafeld coincided with the onset of intense father-son conflicts caused by Hitler's refusal to conform to the strict discipline of...

Alois had made a successful career in the customs bureau and wanted his son to follow in his...

Like many Austrian Germans, Hitler began to develop German nationalist ideas from a young age. He...

After Alois's sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitler's performance at school deteriorated and his mother allowed him to...

From 1905, Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna, financed by orphan's benefits and support from his mother. He worked as a casual labourer and eventually as a painter, selling watercolours. The Academy of Fine...

The origin and first expression of Hitler's antisemitism have been difficult to locate. His close friend, August Kubizek, claimed that Hitler was...

Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich. Hitler later claimed that...

At the outbreak of World War I, Hitler was living in Munich and volunteered to serve in the Bavarian Army as an Austrian citizen. Posted to...

During his service at the headquarters, Hitler pursued his artwork, drawing cartoons and instructions for an army newspaper. During the Battle of the Somme in...

Hitler described the war as, "the greatest of all experiences", and was praised by his commanding officers for his bravery. His wartime experience...

The Treaty of Versailles stipulated that Germany must relinquish several of its territories and demilitarise the Rhineland. The treaty imposed economic sanctions and levied heavy reparations on the country. Many Germans perceived the...

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich. In July 1919 he was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an...

At the DAP, Hitler met Dietrich Eckart, one of the party's founders and a member of the occult Thule Society. Eckart became Hitler's...

Hitler was discharged from the army on 31 March 1920 and began working full-time for the NSDAP. In February...

In June 1921, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the...

Hitler's vitriolic beer hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. He became adept at using populist themes targeted at his audience, including the...

Early followers included Rudolf Hess, former air force pilot Hermann Göring, and army captain Ernst Röhm. Röhm became head of the Nazis'...

In 1923 Hitler enlisted the help of World War I General Erich Ludendorff for an attempted coup known as the "Beer Hall Putsch". The Nazi Party used Italian Fascism as a model for their appearance and policies. Hitler...

On 8 November 1923 Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting of 3,000 people that had been organised by Kahr in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. He interrupted Kahr's speech and...

Hitler fled to the home of Ernst Hanfstaengl and by some accounts contemplated suicide. He was depressed...

While at Landsberg, Hitler dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (My Struggle; originally...

At the time of Hitler's release from prison, politics in Germany had become less combative and the economy had improved, limiting Hitler's...

The stock market in the United States crashed on 24 October 1929. The impact in Germany was dire: millions were thrown out of work and several major banks collapsed. Hitler...

The Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic, which faced strong challenges from...

Hitler made a prominent appearance at the trial of two Reichswehr officers, Lieutenants Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin, in autumn 1930. Both were charged with membership in the NSDAP, at that time...

Brüning's austerity measures brought little economic improvement and were extremely unpopular. Hitler exploited this by targeting his political messages specifically at...

Hitler had formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, but at the time did not acquire German...

In 1932, Hitler ran against Hindenburg in the presidential elections. The viability of his candidacy was underscored...

The absence of an effective government prompted two influential politicians, Franz von Papen and Alfred Hugenberg, along with several other industrialists and businessmen, to write a letter to Hindenburg. The signers urged...

Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor after two further parliamentary elections—in July and November 1932—had not resulted in the...

As chancellor, Hitler worked against attempts by the NSDAP's opponents to build a majority government. Because of the political...

In addition to political campaigning, the NSDAP engaged in paramilitary violence and the spread of anti-communist propaganda in the...

On 21 March 1933, the new Reichstag was constituted with an opening ceremony at the Garrison Church in Potsdam. This "Day of Potsdam" was held to demonstrate unity between the Nazi...

To achieve full political control despite not having an absolute majority in parliament, Hitler's government brought the...

On 23 March 1933, the Reichstag assembled at the Kroll Opera House under turbulent circumstances. Ranks of SA men served as guards inside the building,...

At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1,000 years! ... Don't forget how people laughed at...

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political...

By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. This included the Nazis' nominal coalition partner, the DNVP; with the SA's help, Hitler forced its leader, Hugenberg, to resign...

On 2 August 1934, President Hindenburg died. The previous day, the cabinet had enacted the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich". This law stated that upon Hindenburg's...

As head of state, Hitler became Supreme Commander of the armed forces. The traditional loyalty oath of servicemen was altered to affirm loyalty to Hitler personally, rather...

In early 1938, Hitler used blackmail tactics to consolidate his hold over the military by instigating the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair. Hitler forced his War Minister, Field Marshal Werner von...

Hitler took care to give his dictatorship the appearance of legality. Many of his decrees were explicitly based on the Reichstag Fire Decree and hence on Article 48 of the Weimar...

In August 1934, Hitler appointed Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schacht as Minister of Economics, and in the following year, as Plenipotentiary for War Economy in charge of preparing the economy for war....

Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale. Albert Speer, instrumental in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture, was placed in charge of the proposed architectural renovations...

In a meeting with German military leaders on 3 February 1933, Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy objectives. In...

Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference in October 1933. In January 1935, over...

Germany reoccupied the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland in March 1936, in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Hitler also sent troops to Spain to...

Count Galeazzo Ciano, foreign minister of Mussolini's government, declared an axis between Germany and Italy, and on 25 November, Germany signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with...

In February 1938, on the advice of his newly appointed Foreign Minister, the strongly pro-Japanese...

On 12 March 1938, Hitler declared unification of Austria with Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Hitler then turned his attention to the ethnic German...

On 28–29 March 1938, Hitler held a series of secret meetings in Berlin with Konrad Henlein of the Sudeten Heimfront (Home Front), the largest of the ethnic German...

In April Hitler ordered the OKW to prepare for Fall Grün ("Case Green"), the code name for an invasion of Czechoslovakia. As a result of...

Germany was dependent on imported oil; a confrontation with Britain over the Czechoslovakian dispute could curtail Germany's oil supplies. Hitler called off Fall Grün, originally planned for 1 October 1938. On 29 September...

Chamberlain was satisfied with the Munich conference, calling the outcome "peace for our time", while Hitler was...

In late 1938 and early 1939, the continuing economic crisis caused by rearmament forced Hitler to make major defence...

On 15 March 1939, in violation of the Munich accord and possibly as a result of the deepening economic crisis requiring additional assets, Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht to invade...

In private discussions in 1939, Hitler declared Britain the main enemy to be defeated and that Poland's obliteration was a...

Hitler was concerned that a military attack against Poland could result in a premature war with Britain. Hitler's foreign...

This plan required tacit Soviet support, and the non-aggression pact (the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) between Germany and the Soviet Union, led by Joseph...

Despite his concerns over a British intervention, Hitler continued to pursue the planned invasion of Poland. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded western Poland under the pretext of having been denied...

The fall of Poland was followed by what contemporary journalists dubbed the "Phoney War" or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). Hitler instructed the two newly...

Another dispute pitched one side represented by Himmler and Greiser, who championed ethnic cleansing in Poland, against another represented by Göring and Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General...

Hitler began a military build-up on Germany's western border, and in April 1940, German forces invaded Denmark and...

Britain, whose troops were forced to evacuate France by sea from Dunkirk, continued to fight alongside other British dominions in the Battle of the Atlantic. Hitler made peace overtures to the new British...

On 27 September 1940, the Tripartite Pact was signed in Berlin by Saburō Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Hitler, and Italian foreign minister Ciano, and later expanded to include Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, thus yielding the...

In the Spring of 1941, German forces were deployed to North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East. In February, German forces...

On 22 June 1941, contravening the Hitler–Stalin Non-Aggression Pact of 1939, 3.8 million Axis troops attacked the Soviet Union. This large-scale offensive (codenamed...

On 18 December 1941, Himmler asked Hitler, "What to do with the Jews of Russia?", to which Hitler replied, "als Partisanen auszurotten" ("exterminate them as partisans"). Israeli historian Yehuda...

In late 1942, German forces were defeated in the second battle of El Alamein, thwarting Hitler's plans to seize the Suez Canal and the...

Following the allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, Mussolini was removed from power by Victor Emmanuel III after a vote of no confidence of...

Between 1939 and 1945, there were many plans to assassinate Hitler, some of which proceeded to significant degrees. The most well known came from within Germany and...

By late 1944, both the Red Army and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany. Recognising the strength and determination...

On 20 April, his 56th birthday, Hitler made his last trip from the Führerbunker ("Führer's shelter") to the surface. In the ruined garden of the Reich Chancellery, he awarded Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler...

During a military conference on 22 April, Hitler asked about Steiner's offensive. He was told that the attack had not been launched and that the Soviets had entered Berlin. This prompted Hitler to...

By 23 April the Red Army had completely surrounded Berlin, That same day, Göring sent a...

After midnight on 29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in the Führerbunker. After a modest wedding breakfast with his new wife, he then took...

On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler and Braun committed suicide; Braun bit into a cyanide capsule...

Berlin surrendered on 2 May. Records in the Soviet archives, obtained after the fall of the Soviet...

If the international Jewish financiers outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world...

The Holocaust and Germany's war in the East was based on Hitler's long-standing view that the Jews...

The Holocaust (the "Endlösung der Judenfrage" or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") was ordered by Hitler and...

Between 1939 and 1945, the Schutzstaffel (SS), assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, was...

So I told him what I had seen. His reply was, "You are sentimental." He stood up, I stood up, I said, "Herr Hitler, you ought not to be doing that." I...

Hitler's policies also resulted in the killing of nearly two million Poles, over 3 million Soviet prisoners of...

The Nazis also embraced the concept of racial hygiene. On 15 September 1935, Hitler presented two laws—known as...

Hitler ruled the NSDAP autocratically by asserting the Führerprinzip ("Leader principle"). The principle relied on absolute obedience of all subordinates to their superiors; thus he viewed the government structure as a...

Hitler personally made all major military decisions. Historians who have assessed his performance agree that after a strong start, he became so inflexible after 1941 that he squandered the military strengths Germany...

Hitler's suicide was likened by contemporaries to a "spell" being broken. Public support for Hitler had collapsed by the time of his death and few Germans mourned his passing; Ian Kershaw...

Hitler's actions and Nazi ideology are almost universally regarded as gravely immoral; according to historian Ian Kershaw, "Never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name...

Historian Friedrich Meinecke described Hitler as "one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life"....

He was born to a practising Catholic mother and an anticlerical father, but after leaving home Hitler never again attended Mass or received the sacraments. Speer states that Hitler...

Hitler viewed the church as an important politically conservative influence on society, and he adopted a strategic...

According to a US Office of Strategic Services report, "The Nazi Master Plan", Hitler planned to destroy the influence of Christian churches within the Reich....

Speer wrote that Hitler had a negative view of Himmler and Alfred Rosenberg's mystical notions and Himmler's attempt to mythologise the SS....

Researchers have variously suggested that Hitler suffered from irritable bowel syndrome, skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, coronary sclerosis, In a report prepared...

Hitler followed a vegetarian diet. At social events he sometimes gave graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to...

Prescribed ninety medications during the war years, Hitler took many pills each day for chronic stomach problems and other ailments. He suffered ruptured eardrums as a...

Hitler created a public image as a celibate man without a domestic life, dedicated entirely to his political mission and the nation. He met his mistress,...

Hitler used documentary films as a propaganda tool. He was involved and appeared in a series of films by the pioneering filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl via Universum Film...


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