Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 â€“ October 24, 1972) was an American baseball player who...

In addition to his cultural impact, Robinson had an exceptional baseball career. Over 10 seasons, Robinson...

Robinson was also known for his pursuits outside the baseball diamond. He was the first black television analyst in MLB, and the first black vice president of a...

Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. He was the...

The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena. Robinson's mother worked...

In 1935, Robinson graduated from Washington Junior High School and enrolled at John Muir High School (Muir Tech). Recognizing his athletic talents,...

At Muir Tech, Robinson played several sports at the varsity level and lettered in four of them: football, basketball, track, and baseball. He played shortstop and catcher on the...

In 1936, Robinson won the junior boys singles championship in the annual Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament and earned a place on the Pomona annual baseball tournament all-star team, which included...

After Muir, Robinson attended Pasadena Junior College (PJC), where he continued his athletic career by participating in...

That year, Robinson was one of 10 students named to the school's Order of the Mast and Dagger (Omicron Mu Delta), awarded to students performing "outstanding service to the school and whose scholastic and citizenship record is...

An incident at PJC illustrated Robinson's impatience with authority figures he perceived as racist—a...

After graduating from PJC in spring 1939, Robinson transferred to UCLA, where he became the school's first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports:...

He was one of four black players on the 1939 UCLA Bruins football team; the others were Woody Strode, Kenny Washington, and Ray Bartlett. Washington, Strode, and Robinson made up three of the team's four...

In track and field, Robinson won the 1940 NCAA Men's Track and Field Championships in the Long Jump, jumping 24 ft 10 1⁄4 in...

While a senior at UCLA, Robinson met his future wife, Rachel Isum, a UCLA freshman who was familiar with Robinson's...

After the government ceased NYA operations, Robinson traveled to Honolulu in fall 1941 to play football for the semi-professional, racially integrated Honolulu Bears. After a short...

In 1942, Robinson was drafted and assigned to a segregated Army cavalry unit in Fort Riley, Kansas. Having...

After receiving his commission, Robinson was reassigned to Fort Hood, Texas, where he joined the 761st "Black...

An event on July 6, 1944, derailed Robinson's military career. While awaiting results of hospital tests on the ankle he had injured in junior college, Robinson boarded an Army bus with a fellow officer's...

By the time of the court-martial in August 1944, the charges against Robinson had been reduced to two counts of...

After his acquittal, he was transferred to Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, where he served as a coach for army athletics until receiving an honorable discharge in November 1944. While...

After his discharge, Robinson briefly returned to his old football club, the Los Angeles Bulldogs. Robinson then accepted an offer from his old friend and pastor Rev. Karl Downs to be the athletic director at Sam Huston...

In early 1945, while Robinson was at Sam Huston College, the Kansas City Monarchs sent him a written offer to...

During the season, Robinson pursued potential major-league interests. The Boston Red Sox held a tryout at Fenway Park for Robinson and other black players on April 16. The tryout, however, was a...

Other teams, however, had more serious interest in signing a black ballplayer. In the mid-1940s, Branch Rickey, club president and general manager...

Although he required Robinson to keep the arrangement a secret for the time being, Rickey committed to...

Rickey's offer allowed Robinson to leave behind the Monarchs and their grueling bus rides, and he went home to Pasadena. That September, he signed with Chet Brewer's...

In 1946, Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the Montreal Royals of the Class AAA International League (the designation of "AAA" for the highest level of minor league baseball was first...

Robinson's presence was controversial in racially charged Florida. As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at...

After much lobbying of local officials by Rickey himself, the Royals were allowed to host a game involving Robinson in Daytona Beach. Robinson made his Royals debut at Daytona Beach's...

The following year, six days before the start of the 1947 season, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as...

Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players. However, racial tension existed in the Dodger...

Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played. After the threat, National League President Ford Frick and...

Robinson did, however, receive significant encouragement from several major league players. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man...

Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175...

Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League at the position, fractionally behind Stanky). Robinson had...

Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Larry Doby...

In the spring of 1949, Robinson turned to Hall of Famer George Sisler, working as an advisor to the Dodgers, for batting help. At...

That year, a song about Robinson by Buddy Johnson, "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?", reached number 13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version. Ultimately, the Dodgers won...

Summer 1949 brought an unwanted distraction for Robinson. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives'...

In 1950, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman with 133. His salary that year...

Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". In late 1950, Rickey's contract as the Dodgers' team President...

Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal Standard as...

During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137. He also kept the Dodgers in contention for the 1951 pennant. During the last game of...

Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot...

Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952. The...

In 1953, Robinson had 109 runs, a .329 batting average, and 17 steals, leading the Dodgers to another National League pennant (and another World Series loss to the Yankees, this...

In 1954, Robinson had 62 runs, a .311 batting average, and 7 steals. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs...

In 1956, Robinson had 61 runs, a .275 batting average, and 12 steals. By then, he had begun to...

Robinson's major league debut brought an end to approximately sixty years of segregation in professional baseball, known as the baseball color line....

Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of twenty-eight, he played only ten seasons from 1947 to 1956, all of them for the...

Robinson's career is generally considered to mark the beginning of the post–"long ball" era in baseball, in which a reliance on raw power-hitting gave way to balanced offensive...

Historical statistical analysis indicates Robinson was an outstanding fielder throughout his ten years in the major leagues and at virtually every position he...

Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being."...

Robinson retired from baseball at age 37 on January 5, 1957. Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, his doctors diagnosed him with...

In his first year of eligibility for the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, He was elected on the...

In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts, the first black person to do so. In 1966, Robinson was hired as...

On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32). From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for...

Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. He identified himself as a political independent, although he held conservative opinions on several...

Protesting the major leagues' ongoing lack of minority managers and central office personnel, Robinson turned down an invitation to appear in an old-timers'...

After Robinson's retirement from baseball, his wife, Rachel Robinson, pursued a career in academic nursing. She became an...

Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at...

Robinson did not long outlive his son. Complications of heart disease and diabetes weakened Robinson and made him...

After Robinson's death, his widow founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation, of which she remains an officer as of 2009. On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation will be opening a...

According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing...

The City of Pasadena has recognized Robinson in several ways. Brookside Park, situated next to the Rose Bowl, features a baseball...

Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death. In 1987, both the National and American League Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the "Jackie Robinson Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major...

As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB in 2007 began honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day, which is now an annual observance. For the 60th anniversary of...

At the November 2006 groundbreaking for a new ballpark for the New York Mets, Citi Field, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets...

Since 2004, the Aflac National High School Baseball Player of the Year has been presented the "Jackie Robinson...

Robinson has also been recognized outside of baseball. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an...

A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson Stadium, which,...

In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal home to honor the ending of segregation in...


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