Louis Pasteur (/ˈluːi pæˈstɜr/, French: ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned...

Pasteur was responsible for crushing the doctrine of spontaneous generation. He performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the...

Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. He was the Director of the Pasteur Institute,...

Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical...

Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. He was the third child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. In 1827, the family moved to...

Pasteur was appointed to the Chair of Chemistry in the faculty of sciences of the University of Strasbourg. In 1854, he was named dean of the new faculty of sciences at Lille...

In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the École Normale Supérieure where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced...

In Pasteur's early work as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid (1848). A solution of this compound derived from...

Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of micro-organisms, and the emergent growth of bacteria in nutrient broths is due not to...

While Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory (Girolamo Fracastoro, Agostino Bassi, Friedrich Henle and others had suggested it earlier, with an experimental demonstration by Francesco...

Pasteur's research also showed that the growth of micro-organisms was responsible for spoiling...

Beverage contamination led Pasteur to the idea that micro-organisms infecting animals and humans cause disease. He proposed preventing the entry of micro-organisms into the human body, leading Joseph...

In 1865, two parasitic diseases called pébrine and flacherie were killing great numbers of silkworms at Alais (now...

Pasteur also discovered anaerobiosis, whereby some micro-organisms can develop and live without air...

Following his fermentation experiments, Pasteur demonstrated that the skin of grapes was the natural source of yeasts, and that sterilized grapes and grape juice never fermented. He drew grape juice from...

To prove himself correct, Pasteur exposed boiled broths to air in swan-neck flask that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium, and even in flasks with no filter at...

Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow of this simple experiment. There is no known circumstance in which it can be confirmed that microscopic beings came into the world without germs, without...

Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. During this work, a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled and failed to induce the disease in some chickens he was infecting with the disease. Upon...

His assistant, Charles Chamberland (of French origin), had been instructed to inoculate the chickens after Pasteur went on holiday. Chamberland failed to do this, but...

In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating...

Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacilli to oxygen. His laboratory notebooks, now in the...

The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox. Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced...

The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur who had been working with a killed vaccine produced by desiccating the spinal cords of infected rabbits. The vaccine had...

Pasteur himself was absolutely fearless. Anxious to secure a sample of saliva straight from the jaws of a rabid dog, I once saw him with the glass tube held between his lips draw a few drops...

The Pasteur Institute was established by Pasteur to perpetuate his commitment to basic research and its practical applications. He brought together scientists with various specialties. The first five departments were directed by two...

His grandson, Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot, wrote that Pasteur had only kept from his Catholic background a spiritualism without religious practice,...

Absolute faith in God and in Eternity, and a conviction that the power for good given to us in this world will be continued beyond it, were feelings which pervaded his whole life; the virtues of...

Maurice Vallery-Radot, grandson of the brother of the son-in-law of Pasteur and outspoken Catholic, also holds that Pasteur fundamentally remained Catholic. According to both Pasteur Vallery-Radot and...

Pasteur was frequently struck by strokes since 1868, and the one in 1894 severely impaired his health. Failing to fully recover from the shock, he died in 1895, near Paris. He was given a state funeral and was buried in the...

He was awarded the prize of 1,500 francs in 1853 by the Pharmaceutical Society for the synthesis of racemic acid. In 1856 the Royal Society of London...

He was made a Chevalier or Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1853, promoted to Commander in 1868, to Grand Officer in 1878 and made a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor – one of only 75 in all of France - in...

On June 8, 1886, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II awarded Pasteur with the Order of the Medjidie (I Class) and 10000 Ottoman...

In many localities worldwide, streets are named in his honor. For example, in the USA: Palo Alto and Irvine, California, Boston and...

Avenue Louis Pasteur in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, Massachusetts was named in his honor in the French manner with...

The UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal was created on the centenary of Pasteur's death, and is given every two years in his...

A French national hero at age 55, in 1878 Pasteur discreetly told his family never to reveal his laboratory notebooks to anyone. His...

When Pasteur published his theory and experiments on fermentation in 1858, it was not new to science, neither the idea nor the experiment. In 1840 a German chemist Justus von Liebig had noted that...

Pasteur had given a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort. However,...

Pasteur experiments are often cited as against medical ethics, especially on his vaccination of Meister. Firstly, he did not have any...


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    Louis Pasteur ( / ˈ l uː i p æ ˈ s t ɜr /, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole.

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    French chemist who studied the effect of tartaric acid on polarized light. Under a microscope in 1848, he discovered that there were two types of tartrate crystals which were ...

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