Pythagoras of Samos (US /pɪˈθæɡərəs/;UK...

Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic, and scientist and is...

Accurate facts about the life of Pythagoras are so few that most information concerning him is untrustworthy, making it nearly impossible to provide more than a vague outline of his life. The lack of information by contemporary...

Herodotus, Isocrates, and other early writers all agree that Pythagoras was born on Samos, the Greek island in the eastern...

It was natural for the ancient biographers to inquire as to the origins of Pythagoras's remarkable system. In the...

Diogenes Laërtius reported that Pythagoras had undertaken extensive travels, having not only visited Egypt but also "journeyed among the Chaldaeans and...

It is not easy to say how much Pythagoras learned from the Egyptian priests, or indeed, whether he learned anything at all from them. There was nothing in...

There is little direct evidence as to the kind and amount of knowledge which Pythagoras acquired, or as to his definite philosophical views. Everything of the kind...

Many mathematical and scientific discoveries were attributed to Pythagoras, including his famous theorem, But it was the...

After his travels, Pythagoras moved (around 530 BC) to Croton, in Italy (Magna Graecia). Possibly the tyranny of Polycrates in Samos made it difficult for him to...

His followers established a select brotherhood or club for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic practices developed by their master. The accounts agree that what was done and taught among...

Such an aristocratic and exclusive club could easily have made many people in Croton jealous and hostile, and this seems to have led to its destruction. The circumstances,...

As an active and organised brotherhood the Pythagorean order was everywhere suppressed, and did not again revive. Still the Pythagoreans continued to exist as a sect, the members of which kept up among...

No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived, although forgeries under his name — a few of which...

The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the...

There are good reasons to believe that Pythagoras never dealt with Mathematics at all....

Since the fourth century AD, Pythagoras has commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean...

While the theorem that now bears his name was known and previously utilized by the Babylonians and Indians, he, or his students, are often said to have constructed the first proof. It must, however, be stressed that the way...

According to legend, the way Pythagoras discovered that musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations was when he passed blacksmiths at work one day and thought that the sounds emanating from their anvils were...

This legend has since proven to be false by virtue of the fact that these ratios are only relevant to string length (such as the string of a...

Pythagoreans elaborated on a theory of numbers, the exact meaning of which is still debated among scholars. Another belief attributed to Pythagoras was that of the "harmony of the spheres". Thus the planets...

Pythagoras was also credited with devising the tetractys, the triangular figure of four rows which add up to the perfect number, ten. As a mystical symbol, it was very important to the worship...

And the inventions were so admirable, and so divinised by those who understood them, that the members used them as forms of oath: "By him who handed to our generation the...

Pythagoras's religious and scientific views were, in his opinion, inseparably interconnected. Religiously, Pythagoras was a believer of metempsychosis. He believed...

Pythagoras became the subject of elaborate legends surrounding his historic persona. Aristotle described Pythagoras as a wonder-worker...

Pythagoras is said to have had a golden thigh, which he showed to Abaris, the Hyperborean priest, and exhibited...

Pythagoras asserted he could write on the moon. His plan of operation was to write on a looking-glass in...

Both Plato and Isocrates affirm that, above all else, Pythagoras was famous for leaving behind him a way of life. Both Iamblichus and Porphyry give detailed...

Pythagoras set up an organization which was in some ways a school, in some ways a brotherhood (and here it...

As to the internal arrangements of the sect, we are informed that what was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret towards all. Porphyry stated that this silence was "of no ordinary kind". Candidates...

There were ascetic practices (many of which had, perhaps, a symbolic meaning) in the way of life of the sect. Some represent Pythagoras as forbidding all animal food, advocating a plant-based diet, and prohibiting...

Considerable importance seems to have been attached to music and gymnastics in the daily exercises of the disciples. Their whole discipline is represented as encouraging a lofty serenity and self-possession, of which, there were various...

Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work...

Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the...

Pythagoras was the first person known to have taught the earth was spherical, with antipodes and that it revolved around the sun. Pythagoras was also said...

In the arts the Greeks searched some reality behind the appearances of things. The early Archaic sculpture represents life in simple forms, and it seems that it was...

During the 6th century BC, there was an evolution in the arts from the natural philosophies to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras. The Greek sculptors and...

Pythagoras started a secret society called the Pythagorean Brotherhood devoted to the study of mathematics. This had a great...


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