Pythagoras of Samos (/pɪˈθæɡərəs/; Ancient Greek:...

Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a...

Accurate facts about the life of Pythagoras are so few that most information concerning him is...

Herodotus, Isocrates, and other early writers all agree that Pythagoras was born on Samos, the Greek island in...

It was natural for the ancient biographers to inquire as to the origins of Pythagoras' remarkable system. In the absence of reliable information, however, a huge range of teachers were assigned to Pythagoras. Some...

Diogenes Laërtius reported that Pythagoras had undertaken extensive travels, having not only visited Egypt but also "journeyed among the Chaldaeans and Magi", for the...

It is not easy to say how much Pythagoras learned from the Egyptian priests, or indeed, whether he learned anything at all from them. There was nothing in the...

There is little direct evidence as to the kind and amount of knowledge which Pythagoras acquired, or as to his definite philosophical views. Everything of the kind...

Many mathematical and scientific discoveries were attributed to Pythagoras, including his famous theorem, and...

After his travels, Pythagoras moved (around 530 BC) to Croton, in Italy (Magna Graecia). Possibly the tyranny of Polycrates in Samos made it difficult for him to achieve his...

His followers established a select brotherhood or club for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic practices developed by their master. The accounts agree that what was done and taught among the members was kept a...

Such an aristocratic and exclusive club could easily have made many people in Croton jealous and hostile, and this seems to have led to...

As an active and organised brotherhood the Pythagorean order was everywhere suppressed, and did not again revive. Still the Pythagoreans...

No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived, although forgeries under his name — a few of which remain extant — did circulate in antiquity. Critical ancient sources like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast...

The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics...

There are good reasons to believe that Pythagoras never dealt with Mathematics at all. Therefore,...

Since the fourth century AD, Pythagoras has commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean theorem, a theorem in geometry that states that in a right-angled triangle the...

While the theorem that now bears his name was known and previously utilized by the Babylonians and Indians, he, or his students, are often said to have constructed the first proof. It must, however, be stressed that the...

According to legend, the way Pythagoras discovered that musical notes could be translated into...

This legend has since proven to be false by virtue of the fact that these ratios are only relevant to string length (such as the...

Pythagoreans elaborated on a theory of numbers, the exact meaning of which is still debated among...

Pythagoras was also credited with devising the tetractys, the triangular figure of four rows which add up to the perfect number, ten. As a mystical...

And the inventions were so admirable, and so divinised by those who understood them, that the members used them as forms of oath:...

Pythagoras' religious and scientific views were, in his opinion, inseparably interconnected. Religiously, Pythagoras...

Pythagoras became the subject of elaborate legends surrounding his historic persona. Aristotle described Pythagoras as a wonder-worker and somewhat of a supernatural figure, attributing...

Both Plato and Isocrates affirm that, above all else, Pythagoras was famous for leaving behind him a way of life. Both Iamblichus and Porphyry give detailed accounts of the organisation of...

Pythagoras set up an organization which was in some ways a school, in some ways a brotherhood (and here it should be noted that sources indicate that as well as men there were many...

As to the internal arrangements of the sect, we are informed that what was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret towards all. Porphyry stated that this silence was "of no ordinary kind."...

There were ascetic practices (many of which had, perhaps, a symbolic meaning) in the way of life of the sect. Some represent Pythagoras as forbidding all animal food, advocating a plant-based diet, and prohibiting consumption of...

Considerable importance seems to have been attached to music and gymnastics in the daily exercises of the disciples. Their whole discipline is represented as encouraging a lofty...

Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato. According to R. M. Hare, this influence consists of three points: (1) The platonic Republic might be...

Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans, and Cicero repeats this claim: Platonem ferunt didicisse Pythagorea omnia ("They say Plato learned all...

Pythagoras was the first person known to have taught the earth was spherical, with antipodes and that it revolved around...

Pythagoras started a secret society called the Pythagorean Brotherhood devoted to the study of mathematics. This had a great effect on future...

Only a few relevant source texts deal with Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, most are available in different translations. Other texts...


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